Table of Contents
Bollywood, a term that is often described as the “other Hollywood,” has changed and is continuing to change the Indian culture since its existence in the 1900s. Its name was derived from the combination of “Bombay” and “Hollywood,” and it is the most successful film industry in the Indian cinema. Bombay is the capital of Maharashtra which is one of India’s state, however, today it is renamed as “Mumbai.” Although, there are several similarities between Bollywood and Hollywood, their histories are distinctively different. According to Tejaswini Ganti, the author of Bollywood a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema , the Bollywood film industry is the dominant media institution in India which was started by Dhundiraj Govind Phalke. He was a creative innovator that had challenged to change India through technology forever and consequently, he was named the “Father of Indian Cinema,” (Ganti 8). However, like every fire that was initiated by a spark, Phalke’s work was too initiated by a technological spark that started it all. Moreover, like every new invention, the Bollywood film industry did not fall into place all at once. Instead, as time passed on, one by one, elements were added to the industry which consequently made it one of the World’s most popular film industries that it is today. Through its intriguing song, dance, rasas, dress and more, the Bollywood film industry effortlessly draws attention from viewers worldwide.
History of Bollywood
In 1840, photography was introduced in India and it became the new source of excitement which many aspiring Indians became heavily involved in. However, short films were not made until 1896 when the first cinematographe show was shown in one of Bombay’s hotel at the time. These films were mainly about the epics and myths of Hindi. Further interest grew as more and more Indians wanted to get involve in the new motion pictures era, particularly those that lived in Bombay. Bombay also became the home of the Bollywood film industry because of the economic opportunities it had provided. Its infrastructure and geographical location provided the world easy access to India’s mainland, thereby making economic trade successful. Therefore, with the new found film technology, optimistic international investors provided the much need capital to further develop the film making industry (Ganti 6-7). Raja Harischandra was the first featured film that had debuted in Bombay in 1913 and was produced by Phalke . However, this film and several others that followed were “silent” films because sound was not yet invented in technology (Ganti 10).
It took another nineteen years before sound was invented and incorporated into the Indian films. This new addition consequently introduced music into the films and thus encouraged film makers to incorporate singing and dancing which are distinctive features found in Bollywood films. However, the introduction of sound created a problem. Bollywood film makers did not know which language the films should be created in since there are many different languages in India. Because Hindi was one of the most common languages it was chosen. Hindustani to be exact, since there are many types of Hindi. At that point, Bollywood was beginning to extensively mature but it still faced another problem which was the lack of actors and actresses. ( Ganti 11-12).
Bollywood film makers faced the difficulty in finding actors and actresses that could sing and dance simultaneously. To make matters worse, many inspired actresses were afraid to get involved in the film spot light for fear of being called a prostitute. Dancing, singing and acting were not permitted in the Hindi and Muslim religion. Even prostitutes were afraid to get involved for fear of exposing their identity. Therefore, film makers were forced to dress men as women to play the actresses. However, fortunately, women of European and Indian parentage came forward since their Christian and Jewish religion provided way less ridicule towards women’s film making choices. Moreover, courtesans began to take part in the Bollywood film industry. A courtesan was primarily a woman who performed classical music and dance for royal patronage (Ganti 12-14). On another positive note, in 1935 “play back” was invented, therefore, lip-synching became popular. This meant that actors and actresses no longer needed to be able to sing, hence search became much easier (Ganti 15). All of these elements combined to formally create what we know today as “Bollywood.” Therefore, the name did not suddenly appear during India’s early photography era.
As the years passed, the Bollywood film industry occasionally faced financial cost problems as would any new uprising industry. Fortunately, because of the unique qualities of dancing, singing, dress and other attractions it continues to thrive. Today, between 800-1000 Bollywood films are made annually and they now include romance, comedy and horror to accurately reflect more of life's aspects. Some recent popular films include, “Dulha Mil Gaya,” “Chance Pe Dance” and “The Waiting Room.” http://www.top10bollywood.com/2009/12/bollywood-movie-calendar-2010.html
Vijay Mishra, the author of Bollywood Cinema described these Bollywood films as “temples of desire,” because of the extraordinary attractions they entail (Mishra 1). These Bollywood films and several others not only shine light on the entire Indian cinema but also allow world to experience the Indian culture right from their television set.
— Marecia Pemberton
The Spread of Bollywood
Since the origination of Bollywood in Bombay (currently Mumbai), the popularity of the films and music featured has spread across the world. What began as entertainment intended for Indian audiences gradually flourished into a worldwide phenomenon (Cunningham and Sinclair, 176). Bollywood has always been appreciated by many people in India, and it is the people who have been able to spread and transform its existence. The craze has reached nearly all continents such Australia, Africa, and North America. The neighboring countries of India have also embraced Bollywood.
Australia has a large population of Indian migrants which has led to the popularity of Bollywood in the country. It is common to hear Bollywood music playing in the streets of larger cities such as Sydney (Cunningham and Sinclair, 173). Some Bollywood films are also filmed in Australia to use the varied terrain as the setting.
The Indian population in Africa is also quite significant. Along with Australia, some Bollywood films have also been shot in African countries, especially those in which there is a large Indian population. Even though the films are exported to countries where Hindi language is not dominant, citizens of non-Indian origin still enjoy the films for the cultural similarities and exotic music. In the countries in which Islam is a prominent religion, Bollywood is still able to uphold culturally acceptable values through the characters’ modest behavior and dress.
Many cities in North America have large clusters of Indian communities. For many immigrants, including in other countries have turned to Bollywood as a way to stay connected with Indian culture, to remember “home”, or to pass down decent values to one’s children (Punathambekar, 155 & 159). In North America, most of the culture is less conservative than portrayed in Bollywood films, and different film and musical tastes, regardless of seemliness, are, at the least, tolerated.
The same cultural messages that have been understood by many in these various countries also apply to India’s neighbors. While some neighboring countries, such as Sri Lanka and Nepal share the dominant religion of Hinduism, other neighbors are predominantly Islamic, such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The expectancy of humble characteristics by these similar cultures does make Bollywood more appealing and acceptable. It should be noted most Bollywood films portray a love story between a woman and a man, but they never make any contact that would be disapproved of.
The spread of Bollywood can be attributed to the fact that the Indian population worldwide is very large, and immigration still continues to grow exponentially. After all, India currently has the second largest population in the world of over one billion people (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html). These Indian communities in these non-native lands have added to these countries’ culture, and have been able to broaden their communities’ film and musical choices. It is not only Indian immigrants who are interested in Bollywood. While the intentions were narrow, the minds of some people were not, and the films and music have been able to entertain and intrigue a number of diverse individuals.
— Sarah Lee
Bollywood Song and Dance
Almost all Bollywood films are musicals. Unlike typical American made films, few Bollywood movies are made without at least one song-and-dance number. “Indian audiences expect full value for their money; they want songs and dances, love interest, comedy and dare-devil thrills, all mixed up in a three hour long extravaganza with intermission.” (Bollywood World magazine) In english terms these movies are often referred to as masala movies, because of the spice mixture masala which has a little bit of everything in it.
Bollywood film music is referred to as filmi music which means “of films” in Hindi. Unlike musicals that are produced on Broadway the majority of Bollywood film stars do not sing the songs that are played in the films. The songs are pre recorded by professional playback singers and are then lip synced by the actors on screen, often while performing choreographed dances. While the majority of Bollywood stars are some of the worlds most talented dancers very few of them are also singers. Although there are a few notable exceptions like Kishore Kumar and K.L. Saigal, a double threat singer and dancer in Bollywood films is very, very rare.
Bollywood songs are a lot different from typical western films in that the songs are put there to comment on the action taking place in the movie. If you consider the majority of films produced in Hollywood just use music to create a mood not really to better explain a story, Bollywood has really evolved the concept of music to delve deeper into the plot line of the hero or heroine. Often the song is worked into the plot which gives the character a reason to sing. Another way a song is worked, in is a lot like a soliloquy. The song becomes an externalization of the character’s thoughts to an event that has not occurred yet in the movie. It really enables the director to foreshadow the climax of the film.
The dancing in Bollywood films, is primarily modeled on Indian dance. Most early Bollywood dances were influenced by classical Indian dance styles, and historic northern Indian folk dances called tawaifs. As time passed however, most modern films blend western dance styles like what is seen on Broadway and MTV with more traditional Indian folk dancing. Bollywood films are similar to Broadway musicals in the sense that the main character often performs a dance with a group of supporting dancers. These musical numbers are known for featuring unrealistic fast moving shifts of location and costumes as the verses of songs change. These musical numbers also implement the use of picturization which essentially means to stage in a beautiful natural setting or architecturally beautiful setting. Unlike earlier Bollywood films these picturesque settings are not filmed in India anymore because of political unrest in the film making city of Kashmir. Most of these song numbers are filmed in the beautiful rolling hills of Australia and especially the Alps in Switzerland.
As time has continued many Bollywood directors have chosen to release the soundtrack to the movie before the movie has even been released in order to promote it. The Indian population bases the majority of there opinion of the movies on the soundtrack which really shows how important song and dance is to the success of these films.
Playback Singers of Bollywood
The music used in Bollywood films are called “filmi music,” which originally comes from the Hindi word meaning “of films." (Ganti 20-22)As mentioned above, Bollywood movies often use playback singers, which are singers whose singing is prerecorded for use in movies. Once the songs are recorded, they are played back and the actors and actresses lip sync while they are recording the movie. In most Bollywood movies, there are six to seven songs that the playback singer records. Interestingly enough, successful playback singers are treated the same as popular actors and movie directors. The songs the playback singers perform many times determine the amount of success in the Bollywood movies. The soundtrack for the movies is normally released before the movie is. (Ganti 19-20) One of the most famous, best playback singers in Indian music history is Lata Mangeshkar, she is also called the “Nightingale of India.” She was born in 1929 and got her first break in 1947 in the film “Aap ke Sewa Main” in which she sang the song “Pa Lagoon Kar Jori Re.” Another notable playback singer is Kumar Sanu, who is regarded are one of today’s leading playback singers of Bollywood. There are many people who have attempted to break into playback singing, but many have not succeeded. They are admired for their voice quality, a lot of effort goes into establishing a playback singing career, and hence why not a lot of people can make it in the profession.
— Sabrina Pipkin
The 9 Rasas
The term rasa identifies the main emotion of the composition. In Sanskrit and Hindi literature, there are nine different types of rasas. Indian films are supposed to address themselves to and reflect all, or as many as possible, the 9 “rasas.” The rasas or emotions as they are sometimes called are as follows: Shringara, hasya, adbhuta, shanta, raudra, veera, karuna, bhayanaka, vibshata. Shringara represents love, beauty and devotion, "hasya" reflects joy, humor and sarcasm while "adbhuta" represents wonder, curiosity and mystery. Continuing, "shanta" expresses peace, calmness and relaxation, "raudra" reflects anger, irritation and stress while "veera" represents courage, pride and confidence. Finally, "karuna" expresses sadness, compassion and pity, "bhayanaka" symbolizes fear, anxiety and worry while "vibshata" represents disgust, depression and self-pity. (Marchand 30-35)
As mentioned in the history above, Bollywood films incorporated different genres as the years passed. Therefore, today, most filmi songs also incorporate the nine rasas in order to intimately relate to people's everyday life situations. For example, there are theme songs for children, marriages, and also songs about betrayal, which people often relate to. Because the Bollywood movies are supposed to reflect as many rasas as possible, the genres are often hybrids. This creates a well rounded viewing experience because the audience can experience more than one type of the rasas in each movie rather than just one rasa.
The music in many Bollywood movies is not considered literature by many experts. This has become quite a debate, because Hindi film songs cover all of the nine rasa that are mentioned in the Sanskrit Natya Shastra.(Marchand 40-41) Unfortunately, it seems as though some of today’s poets have forgotten how to celebrate and be happy, which is one of the rasas! According to Researchers it is difficult to find a decent Hindi poetry about love, while many Hinidi film songs uniquely indicates that very type of rasa.
— Sabrina Pipkin
The Bollywood Dress fashion
Bollywood fashion has a major influence on the western fashions of today. Many of the same costumes that are worn in Bollywood fashion can be seen in the western style and clothing of today. Bohemian, or “boho-chic”, is a common style that is driven by the Indian and Bollywood fashion. Bollywood dancers are usually seen wearing tunics, belly shirts, long flowing skirts, and saris, sewn out of sheer fabrics and silks with lots of bright, popping colors. Each outfit has heavy embroidery, often done with thin strands of gold or brightly colored thread, and sequins sprinkled throughout to give it a shiny appeal. When the dancers are dancing, all of these colors seem to blend well together and this, paired with the dance and music, is the art that they call Bollywood.
A common piece of jewelry worn with the Bollywood outwear is the “bindi”, which is a usually a red dot of color applied to the forehead between the eyebrows. It however, can also be a single jewel or piece of jewelry. The bindi was traditionally used to signify a woman’s marital status, age, ethnicity, or religious affiliation. Despite its specific purpose, the bindi today is less restricted and it is worn as a fashion item more than anything else.
Perhaps the most traditional piece of clothing that is part of Bollywood dress is the “sari”, which is a piece of cloth that is draped over the body. These cloths range from four to nine meters in length, and may be one of any four styles including the Sambalpuri Saree, the Kanchipuram, the Paithani, and the Banarasi. The Sambalpuri Saree which originated from the East of India is traditionally handwoven and is tie-dyed before weaving. These sari’s often have lots of symbolism and traditional motifs. The Kanchipuram is a style of sari from the south of India and this style is handmade on a hand loom, which is a thriving industry for this part of India. The Paithani style is from the west, and is the richest type of sari. These are also woven by hand and are made from very fine silks, characterized by an oblique, square designed border and “pallu” on the ends. These saris can come in plain designs as well as intricate peacock designs. The Banarasi is a type of sari that originated from the north. Known for their gold and silver embroidery, detailed figures, and metallic variations, these saris are highly sought after and are usually only worn on special occasions such as a wedding.
The Shalwar Kameez is another type of traditional Bollywood style clothing. This can be worn by both men or women, and it consists of a top and a pant. The top is a tunic, that usually levels around the upper thigh and has open seams on the sides below the waist to give more freedom to the wearer. Traditionally, it went down to the top of one’s knees. The pants are similar to pajama pants because they are loosely-fitted and are usually narrow at the ankle but wide at the top. Although the shalwar kameez is a unisex outfit, women often tend to pair it with a sari that goes around her shoulders and drapes over her chest.
As previously mentioned, many of the Bollywood fashion can be seen in the western style and clothing of today. This comes as no surprise since the bright colors and unique fitting of the clothing is quite an attention catcher.
— Deirdre Nieto
Popular Bollywood Artists
One of the most famous dancers/actors in Bollywood cinema is Amitabh Bachchan. He first gained popularity in the early 70’s and has since won many awards and starred in many films. Amitabh was born in Uttar Pradesh, to Harivansh and Teji Bachchan. His father was a poet and this helped to develop Amitabh's artistic talents. He attended the University of Delhi and received his Bachelors in Science. His first film debut was in 1969 where he was the narrator in the film Bhuvan Shome. Bachchan continued to star in films from the late 60’s and throughout the 70’s. But it was not until he landed a role in the movie Zanjeer, where his film career really took off. After this film, he gained a typecast role as the angry young man of the Bollywood industry (Bose). Amitabh continued to star in films all way up to the 80’s, including hits such as Sholay until his star power began to wane late in the decade and he took a temporary retirement. His career continued to sputter until he finally came back to prominence in the new millennium. Thanks to the popularity remakes of some of his classics like Sholay, his career was revitalized and he continues to star in productions till this day.
Bollywood would not have the reputation it does today without superb choreography. In this regard one of the best choreographers is Saroj Khan. Khan was born in 1940’s and was part of the Indian migration from Pakistan. She began as a child actor in the movie Nazrana when she was only three years old. At age eleven she worked as a background dancer in movies (Bose). Khan’s first film break came with the movie Hero, but it was not until her amazing dance number in the movie Nagina, that her talent finally received the commendation that it deserved. Khan then became deeply involved in the choreography of many films and thus received the first ever Filmfare Award for best Choreography. Khan continues to choreograph films up to this present day, and has also opened up a dance institution in Dubai in 2009. Furthermore, Khan takes time to participate in reality shows and directs a dance class show.
As important as the dancers and the actors are the singers. Bollywood would not be what it is today without their help which gives the industry unique sounds. One of the most important figures in this regard is Lata Mangeshkar. As Bollywood’s premier “playback singers” she has lent her voice to many films, including one with the famous Prithviraj Kapoor. Mangeshkar has even received the highest award for a civilian honor in her country, the Bharat Ratna; being only the second vocalist to ever do so. Mangeshkar had never attended higher learning institution but instead, with the help of family friends, she developed her ability to sing and act. After being cut out from some earlier films, she shifted her focus towards lip synching films and providing the singing to musical numbers (Bose). Mangeshkar continued this career until the 1980’s when she participated in non-singing roles, such as producing orchestral soundtracks, and even starting her own production house. She continues to produce albums and record tracks for various films to this day. Without the voice of Kapoor in some classical films such as Mughal-E-Azam, there would not have been a great successful impact on the industry and even the world.
— Adam Ingalls
Popular Bollywood Songs of the 20th Century
A major part of the Hindi culture is film; it’s actually probably one of the biggest parts. As already established, a vital part to these Bollywood films is music. The movies are, more often than not, musicals, which means there is a lot of dancing and singing. Music in the films is often associated with the term “filmi” which means “of films” in the Hindi language as mentioned before. To reinstate the importance and popularity of an important aspect in Bollywood, most of the time, the actors are not themselves the singers. Instead, a professional singer prerecords the song and then the actors in the movie lip-synch the words. Again, the singers who do this are known as playback singers. These playback singers are very famous and often times have their own fan base. The twentieth century was a great time period for Bollywood music. The music featured in the films of the Indian culture was what was popular in society. The singers, like previously stated, had fans that would go to the films just so they could hear their favorite artist. Filmi song lyrics often went along with what was going on in that certain scene of the movie. The song can be worked in the scene in many of ways but the most popular ones happened to be where the character’s thoughts were one of singing or where the character had a reason to sing! For instance a huge and popular song in the twentieth century “Hawa Mein Udta Jaye” from the movie Barsaat (1949) has lyrics that can be translated to the actual scene in the movie. The lyrics are about a woman standing on a hill and singing about love, which is actually what happens in the movie. However, not all popular twentieth century Bollywood songs are like that. Below are a few more popular songs.
- “Jaane kyaa tuune kahil” is a song about love and finding passion. This song was featured in the film Pyaasa (1957).
- “Chhaiya Chhaiya” is from the movie Dil Se which means “From the heart” (1998)
- “Papa kahte hain” is from the movie Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak. It is about a clash between two Indian generations that differ. (1988)
- “Phuulon ke rang se” is a love song that has a reference to a very popular and famous dedication song. This song is form Prem Pujari. (1969)
- “Chandan saa bada, chanchal chitavan” is a song about flirting, which to the Indian culture the most naughtiest form of flirting happens to be stealing glances and looking at them naughty. This song is featured in Saraswati Chandra. (1968)
- “Ghar aaja pardesi” is from the movie Dilwale Dulhania le Jayenge. This song is about people who have been away from home for a long period of time. (1995)
- “Aye mere pyaare vatan” is a song that expresses the feelings of an Indian who has been overseas and away from home for too long. (1961)
- “Khalike paan banaras wala” is about a guy who likes to eat paan and have a lot of fun. (1978)
- “Ab se baras bhej bhalya ko baabul” is from the movie Bandini is a song about the bond between the brother and sister. This song is very popular in Rakhi festivals. (1963)
Bollywood music is a big influence in other parts of the world. For instance, the Black Eyed Peas song “Don’t Phunk With My Heart” was influenced by two Bollywood films music- “Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwanna” from Don, and “Ae Nujawan Hai Sub” from Apradh. A number of other songs from Bollywood films in the twentieth century have helped inspire, or have been incorporated into the western music of today!
Qayamat SE Qayamat Tak
This Bollywood version of Romeo and Juliet, which is often referred to as QSQT for short, was released on March 1st, 1988. It was directed by Mansoor Khan, and produced and written by Nasir Hussain. The film centers around two lovers Raj, played by Aamir Khan, and Rashmi, played by Juhi Chawla, and their attempt at love despite their families hatred of each other. These two met much like the original Romeo and Juliet, with Raj crashing a birthday party that is held for Rashmi. At the party Raj see her and falls madly in love, an affection which is quickly returned after Rashmi is saved by Raj. As the movie continues, the two families try to tear the young lovers apart. Later, it is found out that Rashmi is to have an arranged marriage and the two attempt to elope. When this is found out Rashmi's father attempts to have Raj killed, which backfires with horrible consequences for both families. This film rocketed Aamir and Juhi to new levels of stardom and won several awards, such as Best Film and Best Director. It's two stars also won Best Actor and Best Actress for their parts in the film. The music for this film was composed by duo Anand-Milind and a complete listing can be found below.
1. "Akele Hain To Kya Gum Hai" sang by Udit Narayan and Alka Yagnik
2. "Ae Mere Humsafar" sang by Udit Narayan and Alka Yagnik
3. "Gazab Ka Hai Din" sang by Udit Narayan and Alka Yagnik
4. "Kahe Sataye" sang by Alka Yagnik
5. "Papa Kehte Hain" sang by Udit Narayan
Dil Chahta Hai
This Bollywood film, whose title means "The Hearts Desires in English," was released in 2001. It was directed by Farhan Akhtar and produced by Ritesh Sidhwani with Pravin Talreja as co-producer. The film idea came from the diary writing of the director and is a basic "growing up" story. The storyline revolves around three friends; Akash played by Aamir Khan, Sameer played by Saif Ali Khan, and Siddharth or Sid for short played by Akshaye Khanna. Each of these friends are fresh out of college and have their own personalities. Akash refuses to believe that true love exists and is quite happy with short lived two weeks romances. His polar opposite is Sameer. He seems to fall head over heels in love with anyone to whom he is the slightest bit attracted to. Sid, however could care less about either and is much happier when consumed with his work. To start off the adventure Akash plays a trick to get Sameer and his girlfriend to break up then plans a getaway trip to the beaches of Goa. However life does not cease for the three while they are away, and upon their return each must face his own battle. Sameer finds out that his parents have arranged a potential marriage for him while he was away. He refuses at first because he has fallen "in love" with a Swiss girl while on vacation, but when he sees his potential wife, Pooja, he truly believes that she is the one. Unfortunately, he finds out the Pooja is already in love with another man and he must try to be content as only friends. Sid comes back to face a different problem. He falls in love with an older woman who has been divorced and is suffering from alcoholism. Their greatest connection is their love of art however, when Sid's parents find out, they believe that she has led him on. When she discovers that their being together has caused strife in his family she refuses to see him again. Akash is promptly sent away to Australia to take on the family business, after they return from the getaway to Goa. On the plane ride over he is greeted by Shalini, a girl he pretended he had proposed to earlier. Although she is already arranged to be married, she decides to allow him to show her around the city. This leads to them beginning to have "feelings" for each other, which are never fully acted on. It is not till after she finally has to leave to go get married, that Akash finally realizes that he is in love with her and chases her down in a classic romantic style with a Bollywood twist. The music for this film was composed by Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy and a listing can be found below.
1. "Dil Chahta Hai" sang by Shankar Mahadevan
2. "Jaane Kyon" sang by Udit Narayan and Alka Yagnik
3. "Woh Ladki Hai Kahan" sang by Shaan and Kavita Krishnamurthy
4. "Kaisi Hai Yeh Ruth" sang by Srinivas
5. "Koi Kahe Kehta Rahe" sang by Shankar Mahadevan, Shaan and KK
6. "Aakash's Love Theme" an instrumental composed by Mike Harvey
7. "Tanhayee" sang by Sonu Nigam
8. "Dil Chahta Hai (Reprise)" sang by Shankar Mahadevan
9. "Rockin Goa" sang by chorus
Dil Hai Ki Manta Nahin
This film has been considered by some, to be a remake of the 1934 Hollywood film "It Happened One Night", though it was never publicized as such. It was released in 1991, produced by Gulshan Kumar, and directed by Mahesh Bhatt. Interestingly enough, Bhatt's daughter caught the main roll of the film. The film follows the classic "girl falls in love father disapproves format." In this case Pooja, played by Pooja Bhatt, is the spoiled and stubborn daughter of a very wealthy shipping tycoon from Mumbia. She falls head over heels in love with movie star Deepak Kumar, played by Sameer Chitre, and runs away to meet with him. On the way she meets Raghu, played by Aamir Khan, an outlandish reporter who is down on his luck and unemployed. After finding out exactly who she is, he says he will help her as long as he can get a story out of it, in order to boost his failing career. She does not want to comply at first, but quickly changes her mind after he threatens to tell her father where she is. As the story line contiunues Pooja and Raghu naturally begin having feelings for each other. However, Raghu believes he is not worthy to even consider marrying Pooja, and Pooja feels all he wanted was a story, so neither acts on their emotions. Eventually the two go their separate ways and Pooja decides to marry Deepak. However on her wedding day she comes to her senses and runs away to marry Raghu. The music for this film was composed by Nadeem-Shravan and a listing of songs can be found below.
1. "Dil Hai Ki Manta Nahin sang" by Kumar Sanu and Anuradha Paudwal
2. "O Mere Sapno Ke Saudagar" sang by Anuradha Paudwal
3. "Kaise Mizaj Aap Ke Hai" sang by Kumar Sanu and Anuradha Paudwal
4. "Adayen Bhi Hai" sang by Kumar Sanu and Anuradha Paudwal
5. "Dil Tujhpe Aa Gaya" sang by Anuradha Paudwal and Abhijeet
6. "Dulhan Tu Dulha" sang by Anuradha Paudwal and Debashish Dasgupta
7. "Tu Pyar Hai Kisi Aur Ka" snag by Kumar Sanu and Anuradha Paudwal
8. "Galyat Sankali Sonyachi" sang by Anuradha Paudwal and Babla Mehta
This Bollywood thiller, set in Bangkok, Thailand, was released in 2004 and drew it's inspiration from the Hollywood hit Unfaithful starring Richard Gere. It was directed by Anurag Basu and produced by Mahesh Bhatt. The film revolves around three main charactors; Simran played by Mallika Sherawat, Sudhir played by Ashmit Patel, and Sunny played by Emraan Hashmi. Simran, mother of five year old Kabir and wife of Sudir, finds herself lonley and out of place in their new city. One day she bumps into her old lover, Sunny, and the inevitable occurs. As the lies pile up Sudhir gets curious and hires a detective, who eventually finds out about the affair. At the same time Simran realizes that an affiar is not the way to fix her life and goes to break it off with Sunny. After she finds Sunny with another woman, she truly begins to regret ever sleeping with him to begin with. Later, the police shows up to question Simran about the sudden disappearance of Sunny. She sees a report filed by the girl Sunny was with and come to the conclusion that it has something to do Sudhir. Later in the film, it is revealed that after the investigator revealed the affair, Sudhir went to Sunny to ask him to end it. During this confrontation Sudhir brutally beats Sunny and buries his body. The police attempt to arrest Sudhir, only to be left confused when Simran attempts to take full blame for the murder, in a vain attempt to make up for her wrongs. However, when the police attempts to find the Sunny's body it is not where it should be, resulting in a climatic twist to the end of the movie. The music for this film was composed by Anu Malik and a listing can be found below.
1. "Bheegey Hont" sang by Kunal Ganjawala
2. "Bheegey Hont - Instrumental"
3. "Dil Ko Hazar Bar" sang by Alisha Chinoy
4. "Jana Jane Jana" sang by Amir Jamal
5. "Kaho Na Kaho" sang by Amir Jamal
6. "Kaho Na Kaho - Instrumental"
7. "Zindagi Is Tarah" sang by Anuradha Paudwal
8. "Zindagi Is Tarah" sang by Sonu Nigam
This film released in 1992 shined a light on the political unrest and terrorism that was becoming prevalent in the northern sections of India. Produced by K. Balachander and Pushpa Kandaswamy and directed by Mani Ratnam, the film revolves around two main characters; Roja played by Madhoo, originally named Madhubala Raghunath and Rishi Kumar played by Arvind Swamy. Roja lives a very simple and peaceful villiage life. She has no interest in getting married, but has a goal in seeing that her sister gets married, going as far as to pray daily to the villiage god. One day a man, Rishi, comes from the city looking for a wife. He is shown Roja's sister but discovers from speaking with her that she is madly in love with another. She pleads with him to not go through with the marriage and in an attempt to not embarrass the family he chooses Roja. Roja, not realizing that it was her own sisters wish to not be married, feels she has hurt her sister and takes it out on Rishi. Eventually the truth comes out and Roja and Rishi begin actually falling in love with each other. One day Rishi gets called away to govermental business in Kashmir. After much argument, his mother convinces him to take Roja, who by this point is infatuated with him. One morning Roja goes to visit a local temple to give her respect for all that has happened. Unfortunately, she does not tell Rishi she is leaving, and he quickly attempts to track her down. As soon as he finds her, he is snatched away by terrorist, while Roja watches the whole thing. This begins the long quest to find and free Rishi. The terrorist, who wishes to have Kashmir free from India, request the release of one of their fellow fighters otherwise they will send back pieces of Rishi. Along the way, the film switches between Roja, who is attempting to get the minister to release the prisoner and Rishi's attempts to free himself. In one particularly dramatic scene, a terrorist trys to burn a flag of India. Upon seeing this Rishi, with hands tied kicks the door of his cell down, beats up the person burning the flag, and proceeds to through himself atop the burning flag to put out the flames. Rishi witness a different side to his enemies as some of their own sons are shot to death, by terrorists, while trying to enter Pakistan to train. In the end he uses this event and the turmoil it creates to his advantage. The music for the film was composed by A. R. Rahman and a listing can be found below.
1. "Chhoti Si Asha" sang by Minmini and A. R. Rahman
2. "Rukmani Rukmani" sang by Baba Sehgal, Shweta Shetty and Chorus
3. "Roja Jaaneman I" sang by S. P. Balasubrahmanyam and Sujatha Mohan
4. "Yeh Haseen Waadiyaan" sang by S. P. Balasubrahmanyam and K. S. Chithra
5. "Roja Jaaneman II" sang by Hariharan and Sujatha
6. "Chhoti Si Asha (Bit)" sang by Minmini
7. "Bharat Hum Ko Jaan Se Pyaara Hain" sang by Hariharan and Chorus
— Shane Magnus
1) Bollywood Dance: Bhangra
2) The Best of Bollywood
3) Barsaat (1949)
5) Mughal-E-Azam (1960)
In the article, “Welcome to Bollywood”, that is featured in the National Geographic website, there were many interesting facts about Bollywood. The article is centered on the work of a veteran film director of the industry, named Yash Chopra. Yash is described as having fifty years of experience in making films, and has produced many top hits. Yash and his son Aditya run the film company named Yash Raj Films, which is the most successful studio in Bollywood. When making films, Aditya writes the storyline, and Yash directs the actual shooting of the film. The article then goes into describing how a film named Veer-Zaara is based on re-creating Yash’s roots in the state of Punjab. This film was created on a 500 acre piece of land, called Film City, which has all of the various fake buildings and realistic village settings to provide settings for the actors to perform. This area is located on the outskirts of Mumbai, which is the place where many of the big budget Bollywood films are made. Yash also discusses how Bollywood films are wholesome, giving the industry a worldwide appeal to the market. The Indian government has given Yash four national awards for “Best Film for Providing Popular and Wholesome Entertainment.” This is far different from the content found in the American film industry of Hollywood. Yash even excludes kissing from his films. Because of his background and culture, he believes that if a boy and girl are in love in India, they will be too shy to kiss in public. This is a drastic difference from the sexuality and nudity found in Hollywood movies. Because of this, the couple featured as the main characters in Veer-Zaara barely even touch each other.
In an article describing Bollywood that is featured on the About.com website, many interesting facts about the movie industry in India were found. Almost all of the Indian films follow the same format, which is called masala, which means a collection of spices when translated. The movies made in India are much longer than the length of American movies, with the standard length being three to four hours. The movies all have many songs and dance routines incorporated into them, and they usually include around 100 choreographed dancers. The common storyline of many Bollywood movies is summarized into a boy meeting a girl, but without public displays of affection. The movies are action packed, but are without bloodshed. Unlike many American films, Bollywood movies always have a happy ending.
According to recent statistics, 14 million Indians visit theaters every day. The cost for viewing a movie in India’s theaters is around $1-3 dollars in U.S. currency. Up to 800 new films are released by Bollywood annually. This figure is more than twice the amount of films released per year in the United States. A number of American films are shown in India, but the only film that made India’s top five list is the Titanic. On the other hand, the influx of Bollywood films is becoming prevalent as the industry continues to expand worldwide.
In an article featured on the Times Magazine website called, “Bollywood: Frequently Questioned Answers”, an explanation for a common aspect of Bollywood movies is given. Bollywood movies are well known for their extravagant time lengths when compared to movies produced in America. The reason behind this is attributed to the large number of songs mixed into the movies. Another reason could be the custom for Indians to devote an entire evening to watching a masala film.
An article shown in the Travel+Leisure website named, “Bollywood Star Guide to Mumbai”, describes the lifestyles of the Bollywood stars and the ritzy environment they live in. At the beginning of the article, a scene taking place in Mumbai depicts two stars entering a lavish night club as fans rush to see them. This is very similar to occurrences in the United States. Then the article describes how Bollywood has changed drastically since it began in 1913. This was a time when socially critical films were the focus. In the 1960s began the transition of song and dance being incorporated into love story settings. This caused the Bollywood stars to rise to the fame that they enjoy today. The main characters in big budget films are paid around 40% of the U.S. $2 million dollar budget for a masala film. Even though this rate is less than American stars are paid, the Bollywood stars are among the wealthiest citizens in India. The demand for Bollywood stars can be so high that some stars act in ten different films in the same time period. The Indian people idolize these stars and decorate their businesses and homes with photographs of them.
In an article from the L.A. Times website called, “Bollywood movies are a bright spot for U.S. cinema industry”, the addition of Bollywood movies in the United States is described. India’s largest theater chain, called Big Cinemas, is currently operating in 18 locations in the United States. These theaters exclusively feature Indian films which directly markets to the target audiences of Indian communities. This is a golden opportunity for this company since major American theater chains have set aside the idea of showing Bollywood films. The article explains how the demand for Indian films is very high in some areas in the United States. The Indian communities in the United States watch Bollywood films in local theaters as a means of holding on to their culture and people. This article is an example of how the demand of growing Indian populations is causing an increase in demand of Bollywood films in American theaters.
Bose, Mihir. Bollywood: A History. N.p.: Tempus, 2008. Print.
Cunningham, Stuart, and John Sinclair. Floating Lives: The Media and Asian Diasporas. N.p.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2001. Print.
Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. UK, USA, And Canada: Routledge, 2004. Print.
Marchand, Peter. The Yoga of the Nine Emotions. N.p.: Destiny Books, 2006. 150-75. Print.
Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood Cinema Temples of Desire. Great Britain: Routledge, 2002. Print.
Punathambekar, Aswin. Bollywood in the Indian-American diaspora. Vol. 8. London, California, New Dehli: SAGE Publications, 2005. Print.
— Sarah Lee
Project manager = Sabrina Pipkin
Writers = (whole group)
Copy editor 1 = Adam Ingalls
Copy editor 2 = Marecia Pemberton
Wiki editor/programmer = Suzanne Tawney
Multimedia specialist = Shane Magnus
Bibliographer = Sarah Lee
Discographer = Erin Blanton
Webographer = Ephraim McGhee
Research Collector 1 = Deirdre Nieto