Marley Family Sounds

History and facts about reggae music, and the Marley family's influence on the genre.

Introduction by Richard Hylton

a. Reggae as a cultural phenomenon

As a cultural phenomenon, the musical genre of reggae has helped shaped generations of instruments, rhythmic beats, and general music production across continents. Originally developed in the basement style production studios from the island of Jamaica, Reggae carries with it the styles from its precursors African-American jazz and old-time rhythm and blues. The developments that have kept reggae alive to this day however were birthed from the “ska” and “rocksteady” movement that moved Jamaica in the 1960’s. By the early 1970’s onward, reggae music will have picked up mainstream popularity and become fused with already beloved songs encompassing subgenres of roots reggae, lovers rock, reggaeton (en Español), or even the Dancehall craze.
Much of the genres development and continued incorporation into mainstream listener’s society must be attributed to Bob Marley and the rest of his family as they have survived generations. Bob Marley’s music throughout the 1980’s, 90’s, and the turn of the century have continued to last as the icon of the genre and the country from which it originated. Marley has so heavily influenced the genre that his own personal lifestyle, dreaded hair and cannabis included, have impacted its listeners. His family’s contribution today is no less as they have created enterprising innovations that helped keep the genre alive. The reggae genre has become what it is today with direct influence from Bob Marley, and the rest of his family.

Ziggy Marley by Nolan Green

1. Musical Career

2. Involvement In Rastafarian Movement

3. Reggae In Popular Culture

4. Conclusion

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Musical Career:

Ziggy Marley carved a name for himself with the collaboration of his siblings in the formation of the band the Melody Makers. Ziggy released ten albums while with the band along with numerous performances at special functions including his father Bob’s funeral in 1981. However, in the early 1990’s sales began to plummet inspiring Ziggy to abandon the Melody Makers and take the throne as the King of reggae; a crown once worn by his father. In 2003 Ziggy relased his first solo album Dragonfly drawing praise from the critics with his hit single “True to Myself”. In 2006 Ziggy released his second solo album Love is my Religion under his independent record label Tuff Gong Worldwide. Musical influences from his father and Trenchtown, Jamaica facilitated Ziggy in landing his fourth Grammy win. Ziggy continues to bless his fans with pleasant melodies, and eloquent songwriting on his active tour.

Rastafarian Beliefs:

Printed on t-shirts and flags, immersed in a cloud of marijuana smoke and gleaming red, yellow, and green is Ziggy’s father Bob Marley’s face; perhaps one of the most recognizable influences in Rastafarianism. Ziggy Marley grew up in Trenchtown, Jamaica where Rasta culture is as thick as the dreadlocks that run down his back. However, much like the album title, love is Ziggy’s religion as he states “I don't want to divide people so anything that I say is something that must be so big and great that it did encompass everyone and it's love”. Bob wanted to instill the importance of survival into his son; thus Ziggy continues to strive for the freedoms of Rastafarians. Recently Ziggy released a pro-marijuana song in support of California’s proposition to legalize the recreational use of marijuana. The use of marijuana is symbolic of Rastafarianism and was a daily ritual for his father. Ziggy states “cannabis is the only thing that will stop the world from going up in smoke”. Although Ziggy may have pushed the bar too far with the release of his comic super hero Marijuanaman; his dedication to the Rasta movement is unmatched.

Work For Children:

One of the last things Ziggy’s father said to him before he passed away was “Money cannot buy life”. Ziggy took this to heart and is actively involved in numerous children’s charities. Ziggy is an honorary member to the Little Kid’s Rock an organization that seeks to provide free musical instruments and instruction to children in public schools. Ziggy is has sparked a progressive change in children’s music as he was the theme song voice for the popular kids series “Arthur” as well as contributions made to the “Dora the Explorer” soundtrack. Generations of listeners have embraced Ziggy for his work with children and he has the hardware to prove it winning a Grammy for “best musical album for children” with his 2009 album Family Time. Ziggy says, "Usually my songs mean more than one thing. Family Time is my family, your family, the world's family." Family played such a crucial role in Ziggy’s achievement of his ambitions, and his contributions to the youth put them closer to attaining their goals.

Conclusion:

Ziggy Marley has done an excellent job at carrying on the Marley family crest with his musical achievements as well as his active role in philanthropy. Ziggy Marley is at the forefront of the reggae movement consistently releasing albums and soundtracks that spread the true meaning of reggae: mellow beats, and expressive lyrics. Ziggy however did not stop at song making but chose to launch his own record label with the hopes of signing young reggae artists that will continue the legacy of the genre. Ziggy Marley is the quintessential reggae artist, a selfless man with a firm advocacy for peace and love. Ziggy Marley had big shoes to fill after the death of his father, yet he has become one of the most influential artists for the progression of reggae

Bob Marley by Genna Ribak

Bob Marley, originally Robert Nesta Marley, was born on February 6th, 1945 in a village named Nine Miles, in St. Ann, Jamaica. His mother was an 18-year-old black woman, while his father was a 50-year-old white man. Bob barely knew his father, however, and he did not live to see his son’s worldwide success.
Bob was a Jamaican singer, guitarist, songwriter, and Rastafarian prophet. He was a legend throughout his musical career, and still continues to deeply influence fans and reggae music to this day. Marley’s brilliant work seems to remain timeless, as it has been for the past two decades.

Bob, played a huge part in spreading the popularity of reggae music universally, as well as the cultural acceptance of reggae. He was one of the best internationally known reggae artists due to his roles as a political activist, as well as a Rastafarian convert.

It was his song “No Women, No Cry” that was his breakthrough, which gave his album a Billboard Top Ten in 1975. His own universal fame came from his songs dealing with religion and politics, such as “Get Up, Stand Up.” His music even attracted those who had never given the reggae genre a chance. It is said that his 1984 album titled “Legend” earned the reputation as being the only reggae album that was owned by people who have never before owned one.

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He influenced so many different types of people for many different reasons. He promoted peace through his song lyrics and presented his fans with a cultural understanding of his Jamaican background. He influences people spiritually and emotionally through his meaningful works and outstanding character. Bob Marley’s music continues to spread not just to Jamaican listeners, but various different groups of people including, but most definitely not limited to, Westerners, Indonesians, Indians, and West Africans.

He has received numerous awards; one including a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. He is also in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Two of his songs, “Exodus” and “One Love”, received awards as well. “Exodus” was awarded Time Magazine’s Album of the Century, and “One Love” was awarded with BBC’s Song of the Millennium.

“Smile Jamaica” was a free concert put together by the Jamaican Prime Minister, Michael Manely in December of 1976. The purpose of the concert was to ease some tension between two opposing political parties. A few days before “Smile Jamaica”, however, a gunman broke into the Marley’s home, and shot Bob, Rita (his wife), and Don Taylor (his manager), inside of their kitchen. They were all wounded. Bob only had a few injuries—in his arm and his chest. This did not stop him from performing at the concert, though. The show went on as scheduled, even though he was injured as he performed for his fans. The assault was most likely politically instigated. “The One Love Peace Concert” was another concert that Bob performed at that was devoted to ease the tension between opposing political parties. It was in April of 1978.

Bob Marley’s death occurred in 1981, due to Melanoma in his toe. He could have gotten an amputation, and possibly stopped the cancer from spreading throughout his body. However, he was a devout Rastafarian, and any form of amputation to the body is considered a sin. Bob Marley is truly an inspiration, and his death at age 36 may have been avoided, but he was a firm believer in his religion. His last words were to his son, Ziggy Marley, and he said “Money can’t buy life.”

Videos


Additional Videos of Bob Marley

[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLYOOezs3DA]
Get Up Stand Up (Live)

[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKp670Yh0E0]
Bob Marley Jammin- One Love Peace Concert

Stephen Marley

By: Brianna Page

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The Beginning

Stephen Marley is one of the best known producers and artists in the reggae music industry. Stephen is one of the several family members related to the legendary Bob Marley and he has definitely inherited and embraced his talent of music.
Stephen started off his music career at a young age of six years old. He recorded his first song, “Children Playing in the Streets”, with his two sisters Sharon and Cedella and his older brother “Ziggy” Marley. This song recoding led these siblings into the group called “The Melody Makers”. Although this group was deemed unsuccessful after several failed song releases, they eventually found their victory. Stephen was an active member of this group, providing vocals and instrumentals and also writing and producing for the group.
Stephen’s connection with reggae music originated from his dad’s career and continued with the influence from the rest of his family being involved in the reggae culture. He was raised in Kingston, Jamaica and learned the style of reggae music through his father’s career and lifestyle. When he was younger and his older siblings were off at school, Stephen gained his love of reggae music from hanging out with his father. He learned to play the guitar when he was seven years old and that lead to a lifetime of reggae.

Works and Accomplishments

Thanks to the ongoing inspiration and influence coming from his family Stephen has accomplished a long and successful career in Reggae music. After over ten years with the “Melody Makers”, Stephen went on to bigger and better things.
In 2003 Stephen co-created the group “Marley Boyz” and released an album named “Educated Fools” with his brother Damian. During this album the two brothers collaborated with other reggae artists and created a name for the two in the reggae world.
He then took a break from the performing and front line version of show business and began to take a more behind the scenes approach in reggae. He produced many albums for his brothers Damian, Julian, and Ziggy and also many other Reggae artists.
Stephen Marley is famous for his use of different styles of music blended in to one to create a genre that relates to a wide variety of audiences. He uses reggae mixed with rock and R&B along with some Latin styles and hip hop. His songs also range from having a serious, opinionated message to having a sweeter and softer message. He has also been known to let loose in collaborations with other artists targeting his fun side.
Some of his main performances and collaborations that are more commonly known among fans include many big time stars and tours. In 2009, Stephen joined “Snoop Dogg”, a famous rapper, and “Slightly Stoopid”, a well known band, on the Blazed and Confused Tour. This tour, along with many other reggae tours, invites fans to come and celebrate the well known Rastafarian culture. The Rastafarian culture that is associated with Bob Marley and all of his family provides a laid back environment and focuses on nature and peace.
Stephen is also a five time Grammy winner, his most recent Grammy being from his album Mind Control in 2007. He was awarded with Best Reggae Album, an award that he has assisted his family members in receiving as well in previous years. It is obvious that the Marley unit likes to keep the success and top hits in the family.

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Media

Some well known songs by Stephen Marley…

•“Mind Control”, “Hey Baby”, “Chase Dem”, and “Iron Bars” are all songs off of his Grammy winning Album “Mind Control. The song “Iron Bars” is influenced by the short amount of time that Stephen and his brother Julian spent in jail in Tallahassee, Florida for possession of marijuana.

•“Jah Army” is Marley’s newest single that was released in November of 2010 featuring his brother Damian.

References
"Stephen Marley Biography." Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, 2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2011. <http://www.biography.com/articles/Stephen-Marley-297420>.

"Stephen Marley (musician)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Apr. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Marley_(musician)>.

"StephenMarleyMusic.com | Biography." StephenMarleyMusic.com | The Official Site of Stephen Marley. 2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2011. <http://www.stephenmarleymusic.com/bio.php/>.

Damian Marley

By: Melissa Wegrzyn

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Early Life
Damian Marley, the youngest son of Reggae legend Bob Marley, was born July 21, 1978, in Kingston, Jamaica. He was the only child of Bob Marley and Cindy Breakspeare, and Jamaican jazz musician and former model, and was only two years old when his father died. He was given the nickname “Junior Gong” as a reference to his father, who was often called “Tuff Gong”. And his musical style is obviously influenced by the works of his father, although it still carries a unique style of its own. He was raised within the Rastafarian faith, which has also had a profound influenced on many of his musical pieces. As is the case with many of his family members, Marley enjoys a full time career in music, which he began at the age of thirteen.

Music Career
Marley created his first band, the Shepherds, at the age of thirteen. In 1996, he released his first solo album, Mr. Marley. This album was the first of many produced by his brother, Stephen Marley. While many elements of the album stayed true to Marley’s family roots, he did begin to branch into deejaying rather than only singing. In 2001, Damian released his second solo album, Halfway Tree. This record was well received with the fans and spent over 150 weeks on the Billboard top reggae charts. The album eventually went on to win the 2002 Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album. Damian’s music contains typical Jamaican reggae styles as well as unique influences from the Jamaican technique of toasting, or lyrical chanting. It is believed that this type of musical style was an early predecessor to current rap styles. Marley’s music is best described as a combination of toasting, dancehall music, and traditional reggae. The use of toasting is primarily what separates Damian from his father and other family members involved in the music sphere.

Welcome to Jamrock
Damian Marley’s third and arguably most influential album, Welcome to Jamrock, was released in 2005. It quickly rose on the United States and United Kingdom’s Billboard charts. Welcome to Jamrock won two Grammy awards, one for Best Reggae Album and one for Best Urban/Alternative performance. The songs present on the album were influenced by the poverty and politics of inner city Jamaica. Although Welcome to Jamrock was often criticized for providing a negative image of the island, it received an equal amount of praise for opening listeners’ eyes to the harsh conditions found in the inner city. The single from which the album retains its name, Welcome to Jamrock, was ultimately named one of the 100 most influential songs of the decade by Rolling Stone Magazine.

Collaborations
Throughout his long career, Marley has performed many musical collaborations with other popular artists. Perhaps most notably was his work with legendary hip-hop artist NAS, as well as Bobby Brown, Gwen Stefani, and his brother Stephen Marley. His most recent work can be found in his collaboration with Bruno Mars, “Liquor Store Blues” debuted in 2010. The wide range of musical styles found throughout his discography shows the truly diverse range of Marley’s skills as an artist.

Rita Marley by Anya Owens

Rita Marley’s life began in a rough part of Jamaica, where Rita attempted to pursue a career in nursing but dropped out after having a child in 1964. She then decided to give her passion for singing a try. Rita began singing on the radio with her cousin Constantine Walker and her friend Marlene Gifford. Many doors were opened for them and they had the opportunity to sing for a group known as the Wailing Wailers, of which Bob Marley was a part. This group was essential in the girls’ music career and caught them a break with Studio One record label although, in the end, they mostly sang backup and had one hit called “I love you, Baby”. The group was given a name, the Soulettes, and a mentor, who just so happened to be Bob Marley himself. Over the rest of her musical career, Rita did little besides some solo albums in the 1980’s though she has continued to have incredible enthusiasm for music.

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Since working side by side, Rita and Bob had fallen in love and got married in 1966. Together they had two children, a daughter named Cedella the following year and a son named David in 1968. In order to fully understand Rita as a person and her relationship with Bob, it is essential to consider how she reacted towards his extramarital relationships and children. She unselfishly saw these kids in as her own and continued to be by his side and support him and his career throughout his life.

As it so happens, Rita was not as involved in the Rastafarian movement as her husband was but his eccentric lifestyle weighed heavily on her life. At one point they were even shot in 1976 in their home by someone who believed Bob to be part of the People’s National Party.

Lately, she has devoted her life to helping the community. She developed the Rita Marley Foundation in 2000. The goal of this program is to eliminate poverty in the lives of people in developing and undeveloped countries. Solely based on monetary donations and the support of other partners, the Rita Marley Foundation has a long term goal of purging these countries of poverty and hunger through economic investments, increased and more reliable health care, healthy nutritional practice, and providing more educational opportunities for these people. The program further aids other programs working for the same results.

In 2004, Rita wrote a book titled “No Woman, No Cry: My Life with Bob Marley”. Her book focuses on her husband in her attempt for the world to see the man she loved through their personal relationship. She further uses this book as means to discuss her devotion to her husband despite their turbulent relationship. Always her goal throughout life, Rita made it her mission to support Bob and his musical success and to ensure the world understood his legacy as truthfully and positively as possible in order to overcome the deified figure he has become today.

Julian Marley by David Jernigan

Julian Marley was born in London, England, June 4, 1975. His father was the legendary Bob Marley and his mother was a Barbados native Lucy Pounder. Julian was one of 13 children, most of whom had different mothers. Not surprisingly, most of the Marley siblings are involved in making music.

Julian is completely self taught, and has had a passion for music since a very young age. He can not only play the guitar, but he is also talented at the keyboards, bass, and the drums. Growing up he could be found either in his home town of London, or Jamaica. Julian has been quoted as saying, “Growing up in London remains a large part of who I am today. I feel privileged to be a part of the musical roots that my father laid in England.” That being said, in Jamaica would be where he would work on a lot of his music and create the band that he still performs with today. In his father’s studio in Kingston, Jamaica, Julian was only five years old when he made his first demo tape. Like his father before him Julian is a devout Rastafarian, so his music reflects those beliefs and is very spiritual. “Uprising” was not only the title to his first single released in 1989, but it was also the title that he gave to the band he formed with friends he made after moving to Kingston in 1992 to work with family.

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During the 90’s Julian and his band The Uprising were able to go on an international tour thanks to the success of their first album “Lion in the Morning” that was released in 1996. During that time period, Julian was also able to do live performances with his brothers Damian and Stephen, as well as open for his older brother Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers (arguably the most famous Marley other than Bob himself).

Julian has continued to perform all over the world. In 2004, he and the rest of the Marley brothers went on their first USA tour called The Roots Rock Reggae Fest. The brothers also get a chance to play together every year at the annual Africa Unite concert. The concert, sponsored by the Bob Marley Foundation, is a series of events held every year in a different country with the hopes of uniting Africa. Julian Marley and The Uprising performed at the 2008 Africa Unite concert and had such a profound effect on the Jamaican government that they were invited to perform during the 2008 Olympics in China.

After the death of his Grandmother in 2008, Julian released a new album titled “Awake”. The album features brothers Stephen and Damian, who along with Julian also produced the album. Awake is a combination of R&B, reggae, hip-hop, and dancehall all with the same positive live life to its fullest message that Julian has become known for.

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Ky-Mani Marley by Mark Davidson

Ky-Mani Marley is the son of Bob Marley and Anita Belnavis. He was their only child but is one of eleven children that Bob had with numerous wives. Ky-Mani was born in Jamaica but he moved to the city of Miami, Florida at a young age. This is where he spent most of his child hood and adolescence. Ky-Mani took a different career path than most of the people in his family; he fell in love with sports rather than music. While living in Miami, Ky-Mani was brought up in a very different culture and lifestyle than most people would imagine of a famous person. He lived in a two-bedroom house in the heart of Miami with eight other people. Needless to say, luxury was not part of his lifestyle. This taught Ky-Mani life lessons such as, “Every man is treated equally;” which becomes evident in his music later in life.

Even though Ky-Mani was more interested in sports than he was music at an early age, his mother still had him take music lessons on the piano, trumpet and other instruments. This had a large impact on his career because he began to record music for fun and his career turned from sports to music in a matter of days.

Ky-Mani took influences from the way he grew up and incorporated them into the culture of his music. The, “Every man is treated equally,” attitude also slipped into his style and influence. His music cannot be classified as any single genre but rather as, “World Music.” He uses influences of reggae, hip-hop, rhythm and blues, and jazz; which have all won him numerous awards in the music industry. Ky-Mani has earned so much respect among fellow artists and musicians because he has made his own lifestyle without using his father’s fame to get him there.

Once this young star became his own person, his own style, his own character, his own superstar, he was able to capture the attention of his fans and produce many different types of careers in one. He created his own clothing company called Ky-Mani Konfrontation clothing. They sell different tee shirts that represent his name and his style. He has been on many television shows and in many movies. He tends to play roles that incorporate his belief of, “Every man is treated equally.” Another accomplishment that Ky-Mani has completed is he wrote a book called “Dear Dad.” This book was a story of the secrets of the Marley family and it has caused a ton of controversy.

Most important of all of Ky-Mani’s accomplishments is his career in the music industry. He now has made three albums of “World Music” and all of them have developed fame and made it to the top of the reggae charts. He has been nominated for a Grammy as well as making it to the number one spot of the reggae charts. Although Ky-Mani did not follow the footsteps of his father, he did end up being a famous musician. He has his own style that incorporates many different types of music and also follows the guidelines of his success, “Every man is treated equally.”

Cedella Marley by Lindsay Clasing

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Cedella Marley was born in Kingston, Jamaica, to Bob and Rita Marley. Cedella was Bob Marley’s first child, during an interview with her she described her childhood as a cool beachy experience that made their family and all the siblings extremely close. Because her parents were musical and cultural icons, they were on tour for a lot of her childhood, causing Cedella to attend boarding school. One of the most important things she learned from her father was the importance of family, and to this day her and her siblings are extremely close, even today all the Marley siblings not only all live in the city of Miami, but within a block of each other.

Growing up with two reggae artists as parents, it was only natural that Cedella fell into a performing career. Cedella became very involved in the music group Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers, which was a reggae group comprised of four of Bob Marley’s children. Cedella strives to keep her father’s legacy alive and to keep good reputation for him, something she feels incredibly passionate about. Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers are undoubtedly associated with the children’s father, Bob Marley, thus showing one of the many ways Cedella holds up her father’s existence as a cultural icon. One of the most important things to Cedella is keeping the Marley musical message alive and having it seen as a celebration of music in a positive light. Cedella has also been working on special projects with the Marley Girls group, where she is able to not only express her singing and songwriting talent, but also her talent as a dancer on stage, which is an important added aspect to the Marley Girls group.
One of Cedella’s biggest achievements has been the establishment of her new clothing line, The Catch A Fire Clothing Line, which was named after one of her father’s albums. It started off as a mere hobby because Cedella could never find any clothes she actually liked for herself, so she began making some and exploring her passion for creativity, and from that her idea spiraled onward. She started with just deconstructing different articles of clothing and seeing how she could reconstruct them in different ways. Her main inspirations for the line were not only her family, but also her home country of Jamaica, Earth, and the intricate jewelry of Ethiopia. Every piece in the line is hand made and one of a kind, the clothes are inspired by her fathers style and have a funky seventies edge to them that combines urban and vintage looks. Her clothing focus’s mainly on casual articles of clothing, like t-shirts and jeans, yet each piece has very articulate detailing on it, like lace and beading, in order to make it a one of a kind piece that is a fresh look on urban styles. Cedella tries to incorporate her father and his reggae music in her work as much as possible; she often includes his song lyrics on articles of clothing like belt buckles.

Conclusion Richard Hylton

In retrospect, some of the most amazing facets of reggae music are its dexterity and appeal to entire generations and cultures as it comes in different forms. The music we may already listen to have songs of similar sounding in the reggae genre. Ziggy Marley’s collaborations with Hip-Hop artist like “The Game” for example helped reggae radiate into the next generation who may have only just discovered this island music. Other R&B productions mixed and mashed against Bob Marley’s old productions or those of Stephan Marley all help create more than just another song or quick melody. They resonate as lifetime products that will always be recycled and used not because of their popularity at the time, but because of the immense work and great sound they are defined by. “The reggae genre has become what it is today with direct influence from Bob Marley, and the rest of his family.”

We have taken a close look into the most influential members of the Marley family as they relate to reggae’s development as a genre and a cultural phenomenon. Each member’s contribution is valued not just in their musical activism, but also their fashion prowess and upholding the Marley name through positive philanthropic efforts. These contributions radiate through the family’s lineage, reggae, the country of Jamaica, and the rest of the world as they consume the genre in its various forms.

Discography Richard Hylton

Some of the Marley’s musical producers best work can be found through mainstream sources such as Itunes Music Store, Amazon and other online sources, but some of the most popular older tunes have been preserved on records and other studio means. Here are some sources:
DOWNLOADS/PURCHASES—http://itunes.apple.com/us/artist/bob-marley/id121982
BOB MARLEY STUDIO ALBUMS
1965 The Wailing Wailers
1970 The Best of The Wailers
1970 Soul Rebels
1971 Soul Revolution
1973 Catch a Fire
1973 Burnin'
1974 Natty Dread
1976 Rastaman Vibration
1977 Exodus
1978 Kaya
1979 Survival
1980 Uprising
1983 Confrontation
JULIAN MARLEY
2009 Awake
2001 Half Way Tree
ZIGGY MARLEY
2006 Love is My Religion
2006 Family Time

Webography and Editing by Angelica Brown

Bob Marley
- www.thehouseofmarley.com/

-www.rollingstone.com/music

-www.discogs.com/artist

-http://www.facebook.com/BobMarley?v=wall

-http://www.bobmarley.com/family.php/

Cedella Marley
-http://www.eyeandi.org/sayitloudmagblog/?p=478

-http://www.cedellamarleydesign.com/

-http://www.melodymakers.com/mm/cedella.html

Ky-Mani Marley
-http://www.thehouseofmarley.com/purpose/the-family

-http://www.kymani-marley.com/?page_id=31

-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ky-Mani_Marley

History of the Genre
-http://www.rootsreggaeclub.com/culture_reggae_afro/reggae/reggae.htm

History of the Genre w/ Marley Influence
-http://www.rootsreggaeclub.com/culture_reggae_afro/artists/ae/bob_marley_biography.htm

Works Cited by Melissa Wegrzyn
Chang, Kevin O. B, and Wayne Chen. Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Print.

Manuel, Peter, Kenneth M. Bilby, and Michael D. Largey. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. Print.

Moskowitz, David V. The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2007. Print.

Steckles, Garry. Bob Marley: A Life. Northampton, Mass: Interlink Books, 2009. Print.

Thompson, Dave. Reggae & Caribbean Music. San Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2002. Print.

Veal, Michael E. Dub: Soundscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2007. Print.

Group Contact info:
Angelica Brown ude.usf|d80ba#ude.usf|d80ba
Mark Davidson ude.usf|60dcm#ude.usf|60dcm
Nolan Greene ude.usf|70gln#ude.usf|70gln
Richard Hylton ude.usf|90har#ude.usf|90har
David Jernigan ude.usf|20jcd#ude.usf|20jcd
Lindsay Klasing ude.usf|90kal#ude.usf|90kal
Anya Owens ude.usf|80oca#ude.usf|80oca
Brianna Page ude.usf|90phb#ude.usf|90phb
Genna Ribak ude.usf|01rrg#ude.usf|01rrg
Melissa Wegrzyn ude.usf|c80wm#ude.usf|c80wm

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